What are some of the critical healthcare policy issues related to access to care, cost of care, and quality of care within an organized hospital system? Evaluate this question from the perspective of each of the following: A hospital administratora physiciana patient, a politician, a tax payer, a Board Member and a Staff. The quality of care has been a major focus in health care in the US for decades now.
The reach of the federal No Child Left Behind Act and accompanying Reading First program is unparalleled, affecting the form and content of instruction in classrooms across the United States.
As debates rage about intended and unintended effects of these policies, we take the stance that, at a minimum, educational policies, including position papers and reports, must be closely examined for their representations of education, particularly how educational policies position teachers and students relative to theories of learning and wider political contexts.
Specifically, we pose questions about the historical relevance of the NCTQ report and explicit and implicit definitions of reading proficiency embedded in the report. We also suggest how informed educational professionals—like NCTE members—can and should engage with policy documents that shape their daily work.
We begin by situating the NCTQ report in a broader historical and political context. While this is one form of policymaking, any document that captures a crystallization of values can act as policy Stone, In the case of education, policy can potentially affect the daily practices of teachers and students, influencing what counts as success in classrooms and beyond.
Position papers are one source of policy that specify the theoretical and practical knowledges, skills, and attitudes that preservice teachers are expected to acquire along the road to certification and then enact in their classroom pedagogy.
No educational policy emerges ex nihilo, however. Educational policies sit in a dialogic relationship with previous and existing policies and policy documents.
Inciting a moral panic over the quality of American schooling, A Nation at Risk served as a call to arms for educational reformers across the political spectrum.
According to the National Commission on Excellence in Education, the state of education in the United States was such that if an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war.
As it stands, we have allowed this to happen to ourselves. NCE, Since A Nation at Risk was published there have been a spate of reports critical of American education, many focusing on presumed failures in the teaching of reading e.
Although claims of a broad-based crisis in literacy have been challenged by a number of scholars [i] e. Infor example, the U. Despite numerous critiques of the methodology, findings, and interpretations of the National Reading Panel e. Department of Education, In this way, the USDOE maintains a unitary, material enforcement of overly narrow views of research and reading that have been challenged in numerous forums e.
To further examine this conclusion, the NCTQ undertook a study of reading courses at 72 American universities. Ultimately, the NCTQ report links reading failures in this country to faddish reading instruction unsupported by scientific research.
Forceful claims about the content of reading methods courses, particularly the proportion of course time devoted to particular topics based on course syllabi, are unwarranted. Certainly, the authors of the NCTQ report present no independent evidence that course syllabi are valid or reliable indicators of course content.
Arguably, the NCTQ research says more about the quality of course syllabi than the content of reading methods courses. Curiously, the authors of the NCTQ report dismissed the possibility of contacting faculty or interviewing students on methodological grounds, arguing that this kind of input would have undermined the objectivity of their study.
The examination of course syllabi is augmented by an analysis of course texts, but no description of this analysis is provided, once again calling into question the validity and reliability of the measures. Additionally, the findings of the NCTQ study are not supported by any kind of third party peer review, a fundamental expectation for the publication of scientific research.
Ironically, a report that valorizes scientifically-based reading research fails itself to meet minimal criteria for valid and reliable research. By failing to take an explicit, theoretical point of view, the NCTQ report restricts reading debates to technical issues of method separate from issues of culture and ideology of which all language practices are a part Gee, While we strongly disagree with the hierarchical, skills-based, autonomous model of reading Gee, ; Street, implicit in the NCTQ report and its referential notes, we are equally disturbed by the way the report evades explicit discussion of its theoretical underpinnings and the pedagogical methods favored by its authors.
We agree with Bloome et al.
Because any policy acts as a crystallization of values, readers must be able to engage deliberately with basic assumptions about education that inform the theoretical grounding of educational policy. In the case of NCTQ, this base is not offered openly to consumers or implementers of policies that draw on the report.
In the rest of the paper, we open this base, interrogating the theoretical stance implicit in the NCTQ report to identify magical, taken-for-granted beliefs that the authors of the NCTQ report hold about reading and the consequences of these beliefs, including the consequences of failing to make these beliefs explicit.
By definition, a representation is a partial rendering of a whole and any author must make decisions about what to include, what to omit, and why.
Policy texts act no differently and, as such, can and should be questioned for what is included and what is left out and how this serves to communicate how education should be shaping literate subjects of the state Luke, However, such readings must delve deeper than what is explicitly stated to examine taken-for-granted beliefs and assumptions that carry powerful representations of values and ideologies.
Although none of these topics are defined explicitly in the report, they are presented singularly, often implicitly, as though they are not open to interpretation.
The authors never explicitly acknowledge the possibility of other positions on literacy teaching and learning informed by different assumptions and beliefs. While all texts are representations and, therefore, contain selected views of the world, we argue that policy texts, and those documents purporting to be scientific, carry a special responsibility to be both explicit and rigorous in explicitly stating the choices and ideologies shaping the representation.
Without this being done explicitly within the document, the onus is even greater upon the reader and consumer to bring these questions and taken-for-granteds to the fore, to participate in open, democratic dialogue about what these taken-for-granteds imply and how they coincide with other possibilities.Mar 21, · The critical analysis should be done in a review style but with a more critical inputs, such as the point of view of the original author of the statement as well as the point of view of the writers of the critical analysis.
All the references should be quoted down in critical analysis%(). Critical Success Factors (CSF’s) are the critical factors or activities required for ensuring the success your business.
PEGS: The Essential Protein Engineering Summit, is the industry’s preeminent event that inspires accelerated biotherapeutic protein drug development. What are some of the critical healthcare policy issues related to access to care, cost of care, and quality of care within an organized hospital system?
Evaluate this question from the perspective of each of the following: A hospital administrator, a physician, a patient, .
On behalf of, and in support of the FEMA Administrator, the Office of Policy and Program Analysis (OPPA) fosters strategic coherence; ensures availability of critical resources; leads Agency policy, strategy, and innovation; provides objective analysis; drives strategy, budget, execution, performance integration and accountability.
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