The Fates The Fates — or Moirai — are a group of three weaving goddesses who assign individual destinies to mortals at birth. In the older mythsthey were the daughters of Nyxbut later, they are more often portrayed as the offspring of Zeus and Themis. In Orphic cosmogony, their mother is said to have been Ananke or Necessity. Either way, they had enormous power and even Zeus was unable to recall their decisions.
Mythology[ edit ] In an ancient myth recorded by Hesiod 's TheogonyCronus envied the power of his father, the ruler of the universe, Uranus.
Uranus drew the enmity of Cronus's mother, Gaiawhen he hid the gigantic youngest children of Gaia, the hundred-handed Hecatonchires and one-eyed Cyclopesin Tartarusso that they would not see the light.
Gaia created a great stone sickle and gathered together Cronus and his brothers to persuade them to castrate Uranus. The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn Cronus Only Cronus was willing to do the deed, so Gaia gave him the sickle and placed him in ambush.
From the blood that spilled out from Uranus and fell upon the earth, the GigantesErinyesand Meliae were produced.
The testicles produced a white foam from which the goddess Aphrodite emerged. After dispatching Uranus, Cronus re-imprisoned the Hecatonchiresand the Cyclopes and set the dragon Campe to guard them.
He and his sister Rhea took the throne of the world as king and queen. The period in which Cronus ruled was called the Golden Ageas the people of the time had no need for laws or rules; everyone did the right thing, and immorality was absent.
Painting by Peter Paul Rubens of Cronus devouring one of his children Cronus learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own sons, just as he had overthrown his father.
As a result, although he sired the gods DemeterHestiaHeraHades and Poseidon by Rhea, he devoured them all as soon as they were born to prevent the prophecy. When the sixth child, Zeuswas born Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save them and to eventually get retribution on Cronus for his acts against his father and children.
Rhea secretly gave birth to Zeus in Creteand handed Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, also known as the Omphalos Stone, which he promptly swallowed, thinking that it was his son.
Rhea kept Zeus hidden in a cave on Mount Ida, Crete. According to some versions of the story, he was then raised by a goat named Amaltheawhile a company of Kouretesarmored male dancers, shouted and clapped their hands to make enough noise to mask the baby's cries from Cronus.
Other versions of the myth have Zeus raised by the nymph Adamantheawho hid Zeus by dangling him by a rope from a tree so that he was suspended between the earth, the sea, and the sky, all of which were ruled by his father, Cronus.
Still other versions of the tale say that Zeus was raised by his grandmother, Gaia. Once he had grown up, Zeus used an emetic given to him by Gaia to force Cronus to disgorge the contents of his stomach in reverse order: In other versions of the tale, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the children.
In a vast war called the TitanomachyZeus and his brothers and sisters, with the help of the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus and the other Titans. Afterwards, many of the Titans were confined in Tartarus. Gaia bore the monster Typhon to claim revenge for the imprisoned Titans.
Accounts of the fate of Cronus after the Titanomachy differ. In Homeric and other texts he is imprisoned with the other Titans in Tartarus. In Orphic poems, he is imprisoned for eternity in the cave of Nyx.
Pindar describes his release from Tartarus, where he is made King of Elysium by Zeus. In another version,[ citation needed ] the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus, and Cronus was awarded the kingship among them, beginning a Golden Age. In Virgil 's Aeneid it is Latium to which Saturn Cronus escapes and ascends as king and lawgiver, following his defeat by his son Jupiter Zeus.
One other account referred by Robert Graves who claims to be following the account of the Byzantine mythographer Tzetzesit is said that Cronus was castrated by his son Zeus just like he had done with his father Uranus before.
However the subject of a son castrating his own father, or simply castration in general, was so repudiated by the Greek mythographers of that time that they suppressed it from their accounts until the Christian era when Tzetzes wrote.
Ammon, a king of Libyamarried Rhea 3. However, Rhea abandoned Ammon and married her brother Cronus. Cronus ruled harshly and Cronus in turn was defeated by Ammon's son Dionysus 3.
Dionysus and Zeus then joined their forces to defeat the remaining Titans in Crete, and on the death of Dionysus, Zeus inherited all the kingdoms, becoming lord of the world 3. Sibylline Oracles[ edit ] Cronus is mentioned in the Sibylline Oraclesparticularly in book three, which makes Cronus, 'Titan' and Iapetusthe three sons of Uranus and Gaia, each to receive a third division of the Earth, and Cronus is made king over all.
After the death of Uranus, Titan's sons attempt to destroy Cronus's and Rhea's male offspring as soon as they are born, but at DodonaRhea secretly bears her sons Zeus, Poseidon and Hades and sends them to Phrygia to be raised in the care of three Cretans.
Upon learning this, sixty of Titan's men then imprison Cronus and Rhea, causing the sons of Cronus to declare and fight the first of all wars against them.
This account mentions nothing about Cronus either killing his father or attempting to kill any of his children. Other accounts[ edit ] Cronus was said to be the father of the wise centaur Chiron by the Oceanid Philyra who was later on, transformed into a linden tree.
As the theory went, Cronus represented the destructive ravages of time which devoured all things, a concept that was illustrated when the Titan king ate the Olympian gods — the past consuming the future, the older generation suppressing the next generation.
English shearmotivated by Cronus's characteristic act of "cutting the sky" or the genitals of anthropomorphic Uranus.Mythological terms are common in contemporary society. For example, an odyssey is a voyage, as well as a minivan!
As students learn more about the characters of Greek mythology, they may be surprised to discover many familiar words derived from myths. Mythology by Edith Hamilton Concept Analysis LITERARY TEXT: Hamilton, Edith. Mythology. Boston: Little, Brown and, Print.
PLOT SUMMARY Hamilton starts the book with an introduction to Greek mythology. She points out that Greek myths are unique because they depict a people that had risen above the brutality and savagery of .
Proto-Indo-European mythology is the body of myths and stories associated with the timberdesignmag.comgh these stories are not directly attested, they have been reconstructed by scholars of comparative mythology based on the similarities in the belief systems of various Indo-European peoples..
Various schools of thought exist regarding the precise nature of Proto-Indo-European. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Essays and criticism on Greek Mythology - Introduction.
Greek Mythology Critical Essays. The analysis of the historical aspects of mythology, specifically the heroic myths, is another way. Differences between Greek and Norse Mythology regarding prophecy In Greek mythology, there are usually prophets that would inform the subjects of their fates, but in Norse there are Norns who decide the fate of the world and because of that no one can change it Those Norns are Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos.