Attachment RD3 Dependence on approval by others RD4 A study comparing the TCI to the five factor model of personality found that reward dependence was substantially positively associated with extraversion and to a lesser extent openness to experience.
PDF Abstract Carbon isotopic signatures recorded in vertebrate tissues derive from ingested food and thus reflect ecologies and ecosystems. Assuming this single value applies to all herbivorous mammals, from tiny monkeys to giant elephants, it overlooks potential effects of distinct physiological and metabolic processes on carbon fractionation.
Introduction Understanding the structure and history of modern ecosystems and vertebrate communities requires detailed knowledge of extinct and extant animal feeding ecology.
This information permits assessment of palaeoclimate, vegetation structure, niche partitioning and predator—prey interactions in fossil ecosystems, so it is crucial to understanding habitat use and trophic specializations over time.
Inferences of feeding ecology of extinct vertebrates, however, typically can be inferred only indirectly from morphological data e. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool to reconstruct ancient ecologies and ecosystems, as it is independent of morphology and directly reflects dietary ecology.
Because the carbon that animals use to synthesize different tissues relates directly to the ingested food you are what you eat, [ 1 ]dietary isotopic signatures get recorded in organismal cells and tissues Comparative study of the concentration dependence 2 — 9 ]. Intriguingly, though, some studies identified enrichment pattern differences between diet intake and tissues in other mammalian herbivore clades e.
If these differences are consistent and significant across mammalian clades, size classes or dietary ecologies, they merit concern, as they imply that some previous interpretations of animal ecologies and reconstructed environments could be mistaken.
Isotope enrichment was determined through controlled feeding experiments or constrained diet analyses to test the prevailing assumption that a single enrichment pattern holds for all plant-eating mammals, regardless of life-history attributes or ecology.
If it does not, we seek to find and test explanatory variables to predict this value. More than years later, because of their lack of close modern relatives, ecological analogues or lengthy ghost lineages, the phylogenetic relationships and ecologies of many of these extinct endemic mammal groups remain unresolved.
One of the least studied groups of mammals are sloths Folivora: Xenarthraalthough they are crucial to understanding many pre-Pleistocene South American mammal faunal communities given the taxonomic abundance and variety of habitats occupied by this group over the past 35 Myr.
Prior interpretations of extinct sloth ecologies relied predominantly on morphology. Consequently, we aim to test those interpretations by means of stable isotope analyses, and provide ecological reconstructions independent of morphology.
This caution is particularly warranted because sloths are foregut fermenters, have long food particle mean retention times and produce more methane than other herbivores of similar body masses the latter experimentally measured in Choloepus [ 13 ].
Some of these parameters have been suggested as potential drivers of the diet—bioapatite enrichment differences observed in mammals [ 6 ].
It also becomes indispensable as a first step in assessing isotopic values recorded in extinct sloth bioapatite, by creating a baseline for interpretation of analytical results from fossils. In addition, the carbonate radical of bioapatite forms from blood bicarbonate, derived primarily from ingested carbohydrates, the main source of carbon in herbivorous diets [ 514 ].
Bioapatite has proved to be a better predictor of the isotope value of the whole diet than are organic tissues e. Because sloths lack dental enamel, this study analyses sloth dentine bioapatite relative to enamel bioapatite of other mammals. In modern specimens, diagenetic alteration is not an issue.
A potential problem when dealing with fossil samples is that during taphonomic processes, bone or dentine bioapatite can recrystallize and thus would be susceptible to isotope exchange in this process [ 16 ]. For modern bone or dentine, although strong, lengthy laboratory treatments can cause recrystallization e.
Because modern sloths vastly underrepresent the ecological and morphological diversity the group had until as late as 10 years ago, proper representation of the group in isotopic analyses demands inclusion of extinct representatives.
N ratio was used as a proxy to test for diagenetic alteration of the isotopic composition for Pleistocene sloths this proxy assesses collagen quality and concentration, which tends to decrease and degrade with the age of the sample [ 21 ].
Of the three fossil samples, only M.Reliability of CT Perfusion-Derived CBF in Relation to Hemodynamic Compromise in Patients with Cerebrovascular Steno-Occlusive Disease: A Comparative Study with 15 O PET Masanobu Ibaraki, Tomomi Ohmura, Keisuke Matsubara, and Toshibumi Kinoshita.
A comparative study of the fermentative structures (i.e. caecum + colon in hindgut fermenters) shows that the absolute and relative size of these structures in voles each exceeds (by more than 2 and 3 times, Incorporating concentration dependence in stable isotope mixing models.
The dependence of the maximal relaxation rate of PABIG composition measured at the saturation dose - a) and the relaxation rate of VIPAR composition measured at the dose of Gy - b), on the weight fraction of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (total monomer concentration 8% w/v). The temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of two thermotropic liquid crystalline mesogens has been investigated to provide a comparison of the OC6H13 and isothiocyanato (–NCS) groups.
A comparative study of the variation of dielectric permittivities of the two compounds has been made and the effective molecular dipole moment μ eff determined as a function of temperature.
The concentration dependence of PCARS intensity has been measured for the cm−1 band of benzene in five different solvents and compared with that of Rayleigh scattering intensity. The temperature dependence of PCARS and Rayleigh scattering has also been studied for neat benzene.
The concentration dependence of PCARS and Rayleigh scattering shows a similar correlation to the . GAUBAS E, Vanhellemont J. Comparative study of carrier lifetime dependence on dopant concentration in silicon and germanium. JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY.
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