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As profession[ edit ] An orchestrator is a trained musical professional who assigns instruments from an orchestra or other musical ensemble to a piece of music written by a composeror who adapts music composed for another medium for an orchestra.
Orchestrators may work for musical theatre productions, film production companies or recording studios. Some orchestrators teach at colleges, conservatories or universities. The training done by orchestrators varies. Most have completed formal postsecondary education in music, such as a Bachelor of Music B.
Orchestrators who teach at universities, colleges and conservatories may be required to hold a master's degree or a Doctorate the latter may be a Ph. Orchestrators who work for film companies, musical theatre companies and other organizations may be hired solely based on their orchestration experience, even if they do not hold academic credentials.
In practice[ edit ] The term orchestration in its specific sense refers to the way instruments are used to portray any musical aspect such as melodyharmony or rhythm.
For example, a C major chord is made up of the notes CEand G. If the notes are held out the entire duration of a measurethe composer or orchestrator will have to decide what instrument s play this chord and how to write a orchestral film score what register. Some instruments, including woodwinds and brass are monophonic and can only play one note of the chord at a time.
However, in a full orchestra there are more than one of these instruments, so the composer may choose to outline the chord in its basic form with a group of clarinets or trumpets with separate instruments each being given one of the three notes of the chord. Other instruments, including the stringspianoharpand pitched percussion are polyphonic and may play more than one note at a time.
Additionally in orchestration, notes may be placed into another register such as transposed down for the bassesdoubled both in the same and different octavesand altered with various levels of dynamics.
The choice of instruments, registers, and dynamics affect the overall tone color. If the C major chord was orchestrated for the trumpets and trombones playing fortissimo in their upper registers, it would sound very bright; but if the same chord was orchestrated for the celli and string basses playing sul tastodoubled by the bassoons and bass clarinetit might sound heavy and dark.
Note that although the above example discussed orchestrating a chord, a melody or even a single note may be orchestrated in this fashion.
Also note that in this specific sense of the word, orchestration is not necessarily limited to an orchestra, as a composer may orchestrate this same C major chord for, say, a woodwind quinteta string quartet or a concert band.
A melody is also orchestrated. The composer or orchestrator may think of a melody in her head, or while playing the piano or organ. Once she has thought of a melody, she has to decide which instrument or instruments will play the melody.
One widely used approach for a melody is to assign it to the first violins. When the first violins play a melody, the composer can have the second violins double the melody an octave below, or have the second violins play a harmony part often in thirds and sixths.
Sometimes, for a forceful effect, a composer will indicate in the score that all of the strings violins, violas, cellos, and double basses will play the melody in unison, at the same time. Typically, even though the instruments are playing the same note names, the violins will play very high-register notes, the violas and cellos will play lower-register notes, and the double basses will play the deepest, lowest pitches.
The trumpets can perform a melody in a powerful, high register. Alternatively, if the trombones play a melody, the pitch will be lower than the trumpet, and the tone will be heavier, which may change the musical effect that is created.
While the cellos are often given an accompaniment role in orchestration, there are notable cases where the cellos have been assigned the melody. In even more rare cases, the double bass section or principal bass may be given a melody e.
While assigning a melody to a particular section, such as the string section or the woodwinds will work well, as the stringed instruments and all the woodwinds blend together well, some composers give the melody to one section and then have the melody doubled by a different section or an instrument from a different section.
For example, a melody played by the first violins could be doubled by the glockenspielwhich would add a sparkling, chime-like colour to the melody.
Alternatively, a melody played by the piccolos could be doubled by the celestawhich would add a bright tone to the sound. In the 20th and 21st century, contemporary composers began to incorporate electric and electronic instruments into the orchestra, such as the electric guitar played through a guitar amplifierthe electric bass played through a bass amplifierthe Theremin and the synthesizer.
The addition of these new instruments gave composers new options for creating tonal "colours" in their orchestration. For example, in the late 20th century and onwards, a composer could have a melody played by the first violins doubled by a futuristic-sounding synthesizer or a theremin to create an unusual effect.
Orchestral instrumentation is denoted by an abbreviated formulaic convention,  as follows: More details can be contained in brackets.
A dot separates one player from another, a slash indicates doubling. As an example, Mahler Symphony 2 is scored: Examples from the repertoire[ edit ] J.
S Bach[ edit ] During the Baroque era, composers showed increasing awareness of the expressive potential of orchestration. While some early Baroque pieces have no indication of which instruments should play the piece, the choice of instruments being left to the musical group's leader or concertmasterthere are Baroque works which specify certain instruments.
The orchestral accompaniment to the aria 'et misericordia' from J. Listen The orchestral introduction to the opening chorus of J.
Opening orchestral introduction to J.The score forms part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes pre-existing music, dialogue and sound effects, and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental, or choral pieces called cues, which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene .
Doing this will effectively double the size of the orchestra at that point, but in real life you actually only have the same number of 1st violin players to play the two parts.
The orchestral score instruction ‘divisi strings’ means just that; half the number of string players will play each part. The result sounds different; less multi-layered. Apr 19, · Let's face it, you can't go very far into film soundtracks without hearing strings.
Strings are one of the most effective tools in a composers arsenal. They're great for everything from lyrical, emotional lines, to huge Hollywood blockbuster action sequences.
Writing for strings is an art in itself and there are many things to consider.. Examples from the final two weeks of the course are pulled from film score literature, including scores from John Williams, Aaron Zigman, and Marco Beltrami.
The course materials are delivered in the form of reading assignments, musical examples, and interactive activities. Examples from the final two weeks of the course are pulled from film score literature, including scores from John Williams, Aaron Zigman, and Marco Beltrami.
The course materials are delivered in the form of reading assignments, musical examples, and interactive activities. A film score (also sometimes called background score, background music, film soundtrack, film music, or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a timberdesignmag.com score forms part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes pre-existing music, dialogue and sound effects, and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental, or choral pieces called cues, which are.