The theory and method of study developed by Marxtermed historical materialismrecognizes the ways in which economic systems structure society as a whole and influence everyday life and experience. The base structure prescribes a range of systems and institutions aimed to advance the interests of those in power, often facilitated through the exploitation of the working class. Marx argues that these systems are set by the ruling class in accordance with their need to maintain or increase class conflict in order to remain in power.
For example, when the play begins Nora is just returning home from a shopping trip. Previously, she made the Marxist and feminist critical lens by hand, spending an entire day on the project.
Now that Nora belongs to a higher social class she practically throws money away. She tells the tree delivery boy to keep the change from the crown she gave him, paying him twice what he asks. Now that they belong to a higher social class, her responsibility has flown out the door and she cares only for her own interests.
By the end of the play, however, she realizes that even if she is able to be free of her debts, she is still financially enslaved to her husband, because as a woman she is completely dependant on him.
Torvald is much more careful with money, but he too bases his outlook on life and relationships solely on money and the status it earns him.
Torvald, too, equates money with freedom, and refuses to give up that freedom by borrowing money. Torvald cares not only about money, but about his social status as well. Nora is only an afterthought when it comes to his reputation. Their relationship is ruined because he continues to believe in money and social status as the source of happiness, while Nora comes to realize that money is not that important.
The Marxist theme can be seen in both Kristine and Krogstad as well. This is a Marxist attitude because her entire life and mind-set are a result of her economic situation at the time of her decisions. She had to leave her home and her child in order to get by. She had to give up a relationship with someone she loved, just as Kristine had to give up her love for Krogstad.
So all she can expect is to be poor her entire life, and for her financial conditions to remain stagnant. The problems that Nora, Anna-Marie and Kristine face are compounded by their gender. She was an object, his property, to whom he designed to give life; but only for his own pleasure.
When he finally addresses her by name, in Act Three, her behavior is entirely different—she becomes serious, determined, and willful. All of it is a role that Nora has been taught to play by society, the behavior expected of all women of the time. Ibsen was even forced to change this ending in order for it to be performed.
Obedience was the main trait that defined women; it was what separated them from men. So in leaving, she was in a sense denying the purpose of her existence. Women had no other role or function in society.
Kristine broke free from this traditional role by chance, because her husband died. Had he lived, she would have been stuck in the same situation as Nora for the rest of her life.
Even so, she is still dependant on men in order to live. Her entire life up until that point revolved around men; the purpose of her existence was to please her husband and take care of her brothers.
When that was no longer necessary, her life lost its meaning. She came to Nora because she was looking for work, and that could only be obtained through Torvald. When he gives her a job, he feels in control of her even outside the office. She was a woman seeking independence from the strictures of society and the rule of men which was placed upon her because of gender.
She was the representation of Everyman, illustrating the need of everyone, no matter their background, for freedom. And she was the representation of the unnoticed, underappreciated workers of the world overthrowing the capitalists who took them for granted.
Works Cited Ibsen, Henrick.Marxist And Feminist Critical Lens Feminist Lens vs Marxist Lens When reading a book, or any piece of literature of that matter, the readers background is important It is apart of how the reader perceives the piece.
Two different readers with different viewpoints and backgrounds are naturally going to have different opinions and will analyze the same piece of writing very differently.
Transcript of Feminist Critical Lens. Examines attitudes towards women and the image of women instead of economic and social injustices like Marxist does. Now, to test your knowledge regarding the Feminist lens, we will split you into two groups to do an activity.
Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Marxist And Feminist Critical Lens. Marxist literary criticism is a loose term describing literary criticism based on socialist and dialectic theories. Marxist criticism views literary works as reflections of . Three of the most useful and relevant frameworks are Marxist literary criticism, Feminist literary criticism, and Freudian literary criticism.
These lenses add insights into our lives and into the literature, film, art, drama, music, or anything else you are experiencing. SpringBoard Criticisms. Unit 2: Pygmalion Final Exam Criticisms patterns, motifs) in the literature of diverse cultures around the world. Marxist Criticism.
Economic inequalities is a power structure that drives history, religion, race, ethnicity, and gender. Feminist Criticism.
A theory that focuses on relationships between the genders.